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Milk: Liters to Pounds

 

Dr Jacobsen travelled to Nandi County in Western Kenya in November & December, 2016, with Catholic Relief Services & the USAID Farmer-to-Farmer program.

Scroll down for the training:  PRACTICAL BASIC DAIRY RATION FORMULATION BY HAND.


In the photo below, Dr Karen Jacobsen is demonstrating how to weigh-tape dairy cows in Nandi County in Western Kenya, December, 2016.


PRACTICAL BASIC DAIRY RATION FORMULATION BY HAND

PRACTICAL BASIC DAIRY RATION FORMULATION BY HAND

(Instruction Handout used for Western Kenya, 2016)

Karen L Jacobsen, BS, DVM, MS

www.KarenJacobsen.net,  706-340-0999 USA cellular,  email: KLJVET@gmail.com

 

  1. How much does the cow weigh?
  2. Weigh tape the cow, measuring chest girth, also called heart girth.
  3. Use Table 1 below to estimate body weight.

Example:  A Friesian cow with a Chest Girth of 187 cm weighs about 500 kg.

  1. Body Condition Score the cow to be sure she is in the normal range.

Use BCS scale of 1-5:

BCS 1 = Extremely Thin

BCS 2 = Thin

BCS 3 = Normal

BCS 4 = Fat.

BCS 5 = Extremely Fat

 

See the Normal Lactation Curve (See "Tables for Hand Rations" on Left Sidebar of this website). 

BCS Normal values:

Calving:  BCS 3.0 – 3.5

Peak Lactation:  BCS 2.5 – 3.0 (maximum loss of 0.5 BCS)

Dry-Off:  3.0- 3.5

NOTE:  The cow must not be thin at calving.  Since she cannot consume enough Dry Matter to reach Peak Lactation, she must use energy from her backfat.  Thus, loss of 0.5 BCS is normal, but if the cow is thin at calving, she will become emaciated at peak lactation.

 

  1. How many liters (L) of drinking water does the cow need?

Rule of Thumb:

1 L/ 10 kg body weight + 1.5 L/kg milk

Example:  450 kg cow, producing 20 kg milk

45 L + 30L = 75 L water needed/day

NOTE:  Drinking water needs increase dramatically as ambient temperature increases.

 

  • How much Dry Matter (DM) should the cow eat per day?

Rule of Thumb:

Dry cows & growing heifers: 2.0– 2.5% of body weight in kg

Lactating cows:  3.0% to 4.0% of body weight in kg.  Higher intakes are needed for higher production.

Example:  450 kg (990 lb) cow, producing 20 kg (44 lb) of 4.0% fat milk needs 17 kg DM (from Table 2).

(The table is recommending 3.78% of the 450 kg cow’s body weight.)

 

  1. What are the cow’s nutrient requirements for Energy & Protein, Calcium, Phosphorus?
  2. Requirements for this cow (Use Table 2):

161 Mj ME

1826 g CP

75 g Ca++

59 g Phos

  1. Consider age, breed, stage of lactation, & climate.

 

  1. What feeds are available, and what are the nutrient values of these feeds?

Ideally, all feeds should be analyzed at least monthly, but in the absence of this information, values from tables can be used for an estimation.  (Be aware that actual values can vary greatly from table values.) 

  1. Fodders (also called Forages, Roughages): Grass, Hay, Silage:  See Table 5.
  2. Dairy Meal, Grain, Concentrates, Byproducts: See Table 6.

Example: The feed available are:

  1. Napier Grass: 20%DM, 7.9 Mj ME/kg DM, 98 g CP/kg DM (9.8% CP)
  2. 6% CP Dairy Meal: 90%DM, 9.1 Mj ME/kg DM, 156 g CP/kg DM
  3. Mineral/Vitamin Premix: 90% DM

 

  1. Will energy requirements be met if the forage is the sole feed? Divide the Energy requirement of the cow by the Energy content of the Forage.

Example:  161 Mj ME/7.9 Mj ME/kg DM = 20.38 kg DM is needed to provide enough Energy.  (It cannot be the sole feed because maximum DMI is 17 kg.)

NOTE:  Be sure the cow receives adequate “Effective” Fiber  (consider quality of forage, “scratch factor,” rumen fiber mat, “tossed salad” appearance of final feed).

 

  • Will energy requirements be met with a forage/concentrate ratio of 50/50?

Example:     8.5 kg forage DM (Napier grass) x 7.9 Mj ME/kg DM = 67.15 Mj ME

8.5 kg concentrate DM (Dairy Meal) x 9.1 Mj/kg DM = 77.35 Mj ME

                                                                                                   Total     = 144.50 Mj ME

Thus, energy is still deficient for maximal milk production for this cow. 

Try replacing some of the Dairy Meal with a higher energy byproduct, Cassava Peels (Table 6).

With this “Trial & Error” method, it easiest to make a table:

 

DMI

ME(Mj)

CP(g)

Ca

P

 

DMI

ME(Mj)

CP(g)

Ca

P

Napier

8.5

  67.15

833

30.6

24.65

 

8.5

67.15

833

30.1

24.65

Dairy Meal

8.5

  77.35

1326

51.0

38.25

 

5.5

50.05

858

 

 

CassavaPeels

0

0

0

0

0

 

3.0

34.50

156

 

 

Total

17.0

144.50

2159

81.6

62.90

 

17.0

151.70

1847

 

 

Requirement

17.0

161.00

1826

75.0

59.00

 

17.0

161.00

1826

 

 

Shortage

 0

-16.5

333

6.6

 3.90

 

0

-10.70

21

 

 

 

  • What is the DM of the feeds being fed?
  1. Estimating DM using tables can be VERY inaccurate, especially for wet feeds.
  2. For wet feeds, measure the DM content by weighing the feed before and after dehydrating the feed.
  3. Methods for dehydrating wet feeds (see KarenJacobsen.net ):
    1. Microwave oven
    2. Food dehydrator
    3. Hair dryer vortex (home-made funnel plus hair-dryer)
    4. Other

 

  1. How much to feed of each ingredient (on an As Fed basis)?

Rule of Thumb: Divide the desired kg of needed DM by the % DM of the feed, expressed as a decimal.

Example: 

Napier Grass: 20%DM       8.5 kg/.20 = 42.5 kg As Fed

Dairy Meal:     90%DM       5.5 kg/.90 =  6.1 kg As Fed

Cassava Peels:  87% DM    3.0 kg/.87 =   3.4 kg As Fed

                      TOTALS:         17.0 kg DM    52.0 kg As Fed

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Table 1.  Estimating Dairy Cow & Heifer Weight by Chest Girth

Dr. Karen L. Jacobsen,  www.FARMLLC.org,  USA cell:  706-340-0999 

Chest

Friesian

Guernsey

Jersey

 

Chest

Friesian

Guernsey

Jersey

Girth

Weight

Weight

Weight

 

Girth

Weight

Weight

Weight

cm

kg

kg

kg

 

cm

kg

kg

kg

69

37

31

26

 

191

526

503

487

71

38

33

28

 

193

544

517

497

74

40

35

31

 

196

566

531

504

76

41

37

35

 

198

582

544

510

79

44

41

39

 

201

601

558

514

81

47

45

44

 

203

620

 

 

84

52

50

49

 

206

639

 

 

86

57

56

55

 

208

657

 

 

89

62

62

61

 

211

676

 

 

91

68

68

68

 

213

693

 

 

94

74

74

74

 

216

709

 

 

97

81

81

81

 

218

726

 

 

99

88

88

88

 

221

742

 

 

102

95

95

94

 

224

758

 

 

104

102

102

101

 

226

772

 

 

107

110

109

108

 

229

787

 

 

109

118

117

115

 

231

802

 

 

112

126

125

122

 

234

816

 

 

114

135

132

129

 

 

 

 

 

117

143

141

136

 

 

 

 

 

119

152

149

144

 

 

 

 

 

122

161

157

153

 

 

 

 

 

124

171

166

161

 

 

 

 

 

127

180

175

171

 

 

 

 

 

130

190

184

180

 

 

 

 

 

132

200

193

189

 

 

 

 

 

135

210

203

198

 

 

 

 

 

137

220

213

208

 

 

 

 

 

140

230

224

218

 

 

 

 

 

142

241

235

229

 

 

 

 

 

145

253

247

239

 

 

 

 

 

147

264

259

251

 

 

 

 

 

150

277

271

264

 

 

 

 

 

152

289

283

277

 

 

 

 

 

155

302

296

289

 

 

 

 

 

157

316

310

303

 

 

 

 

 

160

329

323

317

 

 

 

 

 

163

344

338

331

 

 

 

 

 

165

358

352

346

 

 

 

 

 

168

372

367

360

 

 

 

 

 

170

389

382

375

 

 

 

 

 

173

405

398

390

 

 

 

 

 

175

421

414

406

 

 

 

 

 

178

438

429

420

 

 

 

 

 

180

455

444

435

 

 

 

 

 

183

472

459

449

 

 

 

 

 

185

489

474

463

 

 

 

 

 

188

508

489

475

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2. Daily nutrient requirements for a dairy cow by cow weight and milk production

Cow

weight

(kg)

Milk Yield

4% fat

(liters)

Dry

Matter

Intake (DMI)

(kg)

ME

Energy

(Mjoules)

Crude

Protein

(g)

Calcium

(g)

Phosphorus

(g)

250

0

6

35.5

246

10

7

 

5

7

60

682

23

23

 

10

8

88

395

38

32

300

0

7

40.5

270

12

8

 

5

8

66

742

25

25

 

10

9

90

1029

40

34

 

15

11

116

1316

55

42

350

0

9

45.5

294

14

10

 

5

10

72

806

27

27

 

10

11

97

1093

42

36

 

15

12

123

1380

57

45

 

20

13

152

1667

72

54

400

0

10

50.3

318

16

11

 

5

11

78

874

29

29

 

10

12

103

1161

44

39

 

15

13

129

1448

58

48

 

20

14

156

1735

73

57

450

0

11

54.9

341

18

13

 

5

12

84

946

31

32

 

10

13

110

1234

45

41

 

15

15

135

1521

60

50

 

20

17

161

1826

75

59

 

25

17.5

187

2136

90

68

500

0

12

59.4

364

20

14

 

10

14

113

1275

46

43

 

15

16

138

1560

59

51

 

20

18

162

1823

74

59

 

25

19

187

2085

89

67

550

0

13

63.8

386

22

16

 

10

15

121

1359

48

46

 

15

17

145

1635

61

53

 

20

19

168

1892

75

62

 

25

21

194

2179

90

71

 

30

22

220

2455

104

80

600

0

13

68.1

406

24

17

 

10

16

129

1431

50

49

 

15

18

152

1710

63

55

 

20

20

174

1984

77

65

 

25

22

201

2262

91

75

 

30

23

228

2520

105

79

 

 

 

Table 3a. Daily nutrient requirements for dairy youngstock. 

 (See "Tables for Hand Rations" on Left Sidebar of this website)

 

 

 

Table 3b. 2001 NRC: Nutrient requirements for Friesian Dairy Heifers

       

 

Mature weight: 650 kg, Age: 20 mo, BCS: 3.0, Days pregnant: 240 d, Conceptus weight: 48.1 kg

 

           

 

             

BW

ADG

DMI

ME

CP

Ca

P

kg

kg/d

kg

Mcal/d

%

g/d

g/d

450

0.5 (1.1)

10.5

22.5

12.9

47

25

(296)

0.6 (1.2)

10.5

23.2

13.3

50

25

 

0.7 (1.3)

10.5

23.9

13.7

53

26

 

0.8 (1.4)

10.5

24.5

14.2

55

27

 

0.9 (1.5)

10.4

25.2

14.7

58

28

 

1.0 (1.6)

10.4

25.8

15.1

61

29

 

1.1 (1.7)

10.3

26.4

15.6

63

30

500

0.5 (1.1)

11.3

24.2

12.5

49

26

(332)

0.6 (1.2)

11.4

25.0

12.9

52

27

 

0.7 (1.3)

11.4

25.7

13.3

54

27

 

0.8 (1.4)

11.3

26.4

13.7

57

28

 

0.9 (1.5)

11.3

27.2

14.1

59

29

 

1.0 (1.6)

11.2

27.8

14.5

62

30

 

1.1 (1.7)

11.1

28.5

15.0

65

31

550

0.5 (1.1)

12.2

25.9

12.1

51

27

(369)

0.6 (1.2)

12.2

26.7

12.5

53

28

 

0.7 (1.3)

12.2

27.5

12.9

56

29

 

0.8 (1.4)

12.2

28.3

13.3

58

29

 

0.9 (1.5)

12.1

29.1

13.7

61

30

 

1.0 (1.6)

12.1

29.8

14.1

64

31

 

1.1 (1.7)

12.0

30.5

14.5

66

32

600

0.5 (1.1)

13.0

27.5

11.8

53

28

(406)

0.6 (1.2)

13.0

28.4

12.2

55

29

 

0.7 (1.3)

13.0

29.3

12.5

58

30

 

0.8 (1.4)

13.0

30.1

12.9

60

30

 

0.9 (1.5)

13.0

30.9

13.3

63

31

 

1.0 (1.6)

12.9

31.7

13.7

65

32

 

1.1 (1.7)

12.8

32.5

14.1

68

33

650

0.5 (1.1)

13.8

29.1

11.6

54

29

(443)

0.6 (1.2)

13.8

30.1

12.0

57

30

 

0.7 (1.3)

13.8

31.0

12.3

59

31

 

0.8 (1.4)

13.8

31.9

12.7

62

31

 

0.9 (1.5)

13.8

32.7

13.0

64

32

 

1.0 (1.6)

13.7

33.6

13.4

67

33

 

1.1 (1.7)

13.6

34.4

13.8

69

34

700

0.5 (1.1)

14.6

30.7

11.4

56

30

(479)

0.6 (1.2)

14.6

31.7

11.8

59

31

 

0.7 (1.3)

14.6

32.7

12.1

61

32

 

0.8 (1.4)

14.6

33.6

12.4

63

32

 

0.9 (1.5)

14.6

34.5

12.8

66

33

 

1.0 (1.6)

14.5

35.4

13.2

68

34

 

1.1 (1.7)

14.4

36.3

13.5

71

35

 

Table 4.   Requirements of minerals, trace-elements and main vitamins for different categories of cattle.

 (See "Tables for Hand Rations" on Left Sidebar of this website)

 

Table 5. Quality of some commonly available roughages in Kenya

 (See "Tables for Hand Rations" on Left Sidebar of this website)

 

Table 6. Quality of some commonly available concentrates and by-products in Kenya

 (See "Tables for Hand Rations" on Left Sidebar of this website)

 

References:

 http://www.infonet-biovision.org/AnimalHealth/Animal-nutrition-and-feed-rations

http://192.156.137.110/ssafeed/